N. Satoh, T. Nakashima, K. Yamamoto
J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13030-13038.
Metal-Assembling Dendrimers with a Triarylamine Core and Their Application to a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
A series of charge-separable and hole-transporting phenylazomethine dendrimers with a triarylamine core are prepared and evaluated for use as a charge separator in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Triphenylamine with dendric phenylazomethine (TPA-DPA) is prepared by synthesizing up to five generations of dendrons using a convergent method. The resultant dendrimer has a rigid sphere structure similar to globular protein, with a hydrodynamic radius of 2.43 nm. Electrochemical oxidation of the TPA core reveals that the dendron units in the dendrimer have 0.35 of the attenuation factor (β) in the electron transfer. Complexation of TPA-DPA with SnCl2 proceeds in stepwise fashion from the core to the terminal imine following the basicity gradient among imine groups in each dendron shell. DSSCs prepared by casting these dendrimers onto dye-sensitized TiO2 film exhibited a higher open-circuit voltage than the bare film through the suppression of back electron transfer. The generational growth of dendrons increases the radius of the dendrimer, resulting in a stronger association with I3- and higher open-circuit voltage with an increasing number of generations. Complexation with SnCl2 reduces the resistance of TPA-DPA and improves the fill factor. The energy conversion efficiency of the DSSC prepared using fifth-generation TPA-DPA is 21% higher than that for the bare film and, when complexed with SnCl2, provides a 34% improvement.